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Motherboards

Introduction:- Motherboards are the most vital core component in a computer. The motherboard shuffles the data to the various components eventually in processing and result in output.
Data needs a medium to travel between various components inside a computer. Motherboard comprises of more electrical components such as processors, capacitors, resistors, cables on the circuit. The fine tracks running all over the computer helps in connecting different components and these series of lines are called a bus.

Parts Present on the Motherboard:- The basic component and slots are as follows
· Processor socket
· Heat pipes (or) Fans
· Power connector
· IDE ports for Hard drives & optical drives
· SATA port hard drives (new Motherboards)
· USB headers & Optional additional USB ports
· PCI Expansion slots
· USB, Ethernet, Sound ports.
· PCIe slot for Graphical cards (New Motherboards)

Working:- The components are directly or indirectly connected to the motherboard. Extension PCI cards or Graphics cards are connected to the respected ports.

Motherboard consists of some essential components as follows….
Chipset:- Chipset is the one which drives the motherboard. It determines the compatibility with the core components such as processor, memory and graphics card ,USB, Ethernet, multi GPU support and RAID are determined by the motherboard.
The major Motherboard production companies are INTEL, AMD, NVIDIA, VIA, and SIS.
The chipset mainly comprises of Northbridge and Southbridge.

Northbridge- This is the chip which interconnects the CPU, RAM, Graphics card and the southbridge. It is placed in the upper half of the motherboard.

Southbridge- This is also referred as ICH or I/O controller Hub, this chip connects all
the input and the output ports of the computer to the processor through the northbridge. The southbridge defines what onboard IDE, USB, Sound, Ethernet adapter goes into the system.

FSB- This is the bus that facilitates the communication between the cpu and the Northbridge.

CPU Socket- Here the processor is installed. Here the Processor pins (PGA) are placed in on the board contains tiny holes socket (LGA) for pins.

BIOS- Basic Input Output System called bios which resides on a CMOS chip contains program at the time of manufacturing. It stores default settings of Northbridge, southbridge, memory configuration and the CPU settings, voltage and so on. This will generally use to store the default settings of the system in case of malfunctioning.
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